Cambodia

Cambodia ( Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, Stat) is a country in Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos. Cambodia geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 105 00 E; area 4,520 sq km; area comparative slightly smaller than Oklahoma; land boundaries Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km; coastline 443 km; maritime claims 20; climate tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal t; terrain mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north; elevation extremes Phnum Aoral 1,810 m; natural resources oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential; land use 78.43% (2001); irrigated land 2,700 sq km (1998 est.); natural hazards monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts; environment current issues illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing; environment international agreements Law of the Sea; geography note a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap; ==introduction==
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, whose Angkor Empire extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Subsequently, attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire ushering in a long period of decline. In 1863, the king of Cambodia placed the country under French protection; it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia became independent within the French Union in 1949 and fully independent in 1953. After a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in April 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns; at least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, enforced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, led to a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy and the final elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The July 2003 elections were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. Nation-wide local elections are scheduled for 2007 and national elections for 2008. government type multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993; capital Phnom Penh; administrative divisions 20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities (krong, singular and plural) municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Preah Seihanu; independence 9 November 1953 (from France); national holiday Independence Day, 9 November (1953); constitution promulgated 21 September 1993; legal system primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years; suffrage 18 years of age; universal; ==people==
Cambodia population 13,607,069 estimates for this country take in; age structure 3.1% (male 150,862/female 266,283) (2005 est.); median age 20.79 years (2005 est.); population growth rate 1.81% (2005 est.); birth rate 27.08 births/1,000 population (2005 est.); death rate 8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.); net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.); sex ratio 0.94 male(s)/female (2005 est.); infant mortality rate 80.13 deaths/1,000 live births; life expectancy at birth 61.96 years (2005 est.); total fertility rate 3.44 children born/woman (2005 est.); hiv adult rate 2.6% (2003 est.); hiv people with aids 170,000 (2003 est.); hiv deaths 15,000 (2003 est.); major infectious diseases dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some location; nationality Cambodian; ethnic groups Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%; religions Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%; languages Khmer (official) 95%, French, English; literacy 59.3% (2002);

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